Drug Free School Notification: Health Risks of Controlled Substances

The following information is from the Drug Enforcement Agency publication Drugs of Abuse [PDF].

NARCOTICS—Uses and Effects
Drugs Dependence
potential
Possible
effects
Effects of
overdose
Withdrawal
syndrome
Heroin Physical dependence is a consequence of chronic opioid use, and withdrawal takes place when drug use is discontinued.

Use can create psychological dependence. Long after the physical need for the drug has passed, the addict may continue to think and talk about using drugs and feel overwhelmed coping with daily activities.
  • Euphoria
  • Drowsiness
  • Slowed breathing or "respiratory depression"
  • Constricted
    pupils
  • Nausea
  • Slow and
    shallow
    breathing
  • Clammy skin
  • Convulsions
  • Coma
  • Confusion
  • Extreme drowsiness
  • Constructed pupils
  • Possible death
  • Yawning
  • Loss of
    appetite
  • Irritability
  • Tremors
  • Panic
  • Cramps
  • Nausea
  • Runny nose
  • Chills and
    sweating
  • Watery eyes
  • Depression
  • Vomiting
  • Increased heart rate and blood pressure
Morphine
Codeine
Hydrocodone
Hydromorphone
Oxycodone
Methadone and
LAAM
Fentanyl and analogs
Other Narcotics

DEPRESSANTS—Uses and Effects
Drugs Dependence
potential
Possible
effects
Effects of
overdose
Withdrawal
syndrome
Chloral Hydrate Prolonged use of depressants can lead to physical dependence even at doses recommended for medical treatment.

Long-term use of depressants produces psychological dependence and tolerance.
  • Vomiting
  • Slurred
    speech
  • Disorientation
  • Drunken
    behavior
    without odor
    of alcohol
  • Amnesia
  • Shallow
    respiration
  • Clammy Skin
  • Dialated pupils
  • Weak and
    rapid pulse
  • Coma
  • Possible death
  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Tremors
  • Delirium
  • Convulsions
  • Possible death
Barbituates
Benzodiazepines
Glutethimide
Other Depressants

STIMULANTS—Uses and Effects
Drugs Dependence
potential
Possible
effects
Effects of
overdose
Withdrawal
syndrome
Cocaine Tolerance, in which more and more drug is needed to produce the usual effects, can develop rapidly, and psychological dependence occurs.
  • Increase
    alertness
  • Euphoria
  • Increased
    pulse rate and
    blood
    pressure
  • Excitation
  • Insomnia
  • Loss of
    appetite
  • Paranoia
  • Agitation
  • Increased body
    temperature
  • Hallucinations
  • Convulsions
  • Cardiovascular collapse
  • Possible death
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Drug craving
  • Extreme fatigue
Amphetamine/
Methamph-etamine
Methylphenidate
Other Stimulants

CANNABIS—Uses and Effects
Drugs Dependence
potential
Possible
effects
Effects of
overdose
Withdrawal
syndrome
Marijuana Long term, regular use can lead to physical dependence and withdrawal following discontinuation, as well as psychic addiction or dependence.
  • Impaired judgment
  • Euphoria
  • Relaxed
    inhibitions
  • Increased
    appetite
  • Disorientation
  • Cancer risk
  • Fatigue
  • Paranoia
  • Possible
    psychosis
  • Occasional
    reports of
    insomnia
  • Hyperactivity
  • Decreased
    appetite
Tetahydra-cannibinol
Hashish and
hashish oil

HALLUCINOGENS—Uses and Effects
Drugs Dependence
potential
Possible
effects
Effects of
overdose
Withdrawal
syndrome
LSD Unknown
  • Illusions and
    hallucinations
  • Altered
    perception of
    time and
    distance
  • Increased heart rate
  • Dilated pupils
  • Longer, more
    intense "trip"
    episodes
  • Psychosis
  • Respiratory depression
  • Convulsions
  • Coma
  • Possible death
Unknown
Mescaline and peyote
Phencyclidines
and analogs
Other hallucinogens

ANABOLIC STERIODS—Uses and Effects
Drugs Dependence
potential
Possible
effects
Effects of
overdose
Withdrawal
syndrome
Testosterone
(Cypionate,
Enanthate)
Unknown
  • Virilization
  • Acne
  • Testicular
    atrophy
  • Gynecomastia
  • Aggressive
    behavior
  • Edema
Unknown Possible severe depression
Nandrolone
(Decanoate,
Phenpropionate)
Oxymethalone

Last Updated: December 2016